beni tengutake

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Etat de la question.

L’association entre amanite et corbeau comme marqueur d’une influence chamanique se retrouve en japonais, sous la forme du beni tengutake : “champignon rouge esprit (corbeau)”

Karasu tengu (Edo)

En japonais, le nom vernaculaire pour l’Amanita muscaria est “beni tengutake”, “beni” signifie rouge et “tengutake” peut être “traduit” par “champignon des trools” , “goblin mushroom” etc. “take” ( pénis) est générique pour désigner un champignon quelconque (cf. shiitake), tandis que “tengu” renvoie à une figure mythologique japonaise: les esprits “tengu”. Les tengu sont de deux types, le karasu tengu 烏天狗 assimilable au corbeau et le konoha tengu 木の葉天狗 (ou yamabushi tengu) au long nez qui ne conserve du corbeau que les ailes. L’interprétation populaire la plus courante est que le long nez du konoha tengu sert de métaphore pour les “pieds allongés” des amanites.

Plusieurs éléments permettent d’avancer l’hypothèse d’un lien, très lointain mais reconnaissable, au chamanisme sibérien:

  • les tengutake ne désigne que les amanites (sous réserve)
  • les esprits tengu seraient issu d’un syncrétisme entre des divinités aviaires antérieures et des influences ultérieures, chinoises et indobouddiques
  • la forme karasu tengu est première relativement à la forme konoha tengu
  • un mode d’action des tengu est le “rapt mental” Tengu kakushi, celui-ci laisse ses victimes dans un état de désordre mental.


CHRISTAWL HELAN Tokyo Amanita muscaria The Gorgeous Mushroom
http://www.nanzan- u.ac.jp/SHUBUNKEN/publications/afs/pdf/a997.pdf



The origins of the tengu are somewhat obscured. They may be ultimately descended from ancient native bird
dieties, but they have most likely had some foreign influence as well. The name tengu is derived from the Chinese tian-gou, and both are written with the same characters. The tian-gou was also a mischievous, mountain-dwelling entity, and while tian-gou means “heavenly dog” (apparently a reference to the fiery tail of a certain meteor), its physical descriptions are various. How much the tengu take from their Chinese namesake is not entirely clear, but at least one source describes a tian-gou with a bird’s beak and wings and tangled hair. The tengu‘s shape may have also been influenced by the Hindu/Buddhist eagle deity Garuda, or the owl-like Chinese thunder god Lei Gong, both of whom it also resembles.
http://www.obakemono.com/obake/tengu/

http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Tengu.html

Daitengu are often pictured in a more human-like form than their underlings, and due to their long noses, they may also called hanatakatengu (鼻高天狗, tall-nosed tengu?). Kotengu may conversely be depicted as more bird-like. They are sometimes called karasu-tengu (烏天狗, crow tengu?), or koppa- orkonoha-tengu (木葉天狗, 木の葉天狗foliage tengu?).[21] Inoue Enryō described two kinds of tengu in his Tenguron: the great daitengu, and the small, bird-like konoha-tengu who live in Cryptomeria trees. The konoha-tengu are noted in a book from 1746 called the Shokoku Rijin Dan (諸国里人談?), as bird-like creatures with wings two meters across which were seen catching fish in the Ōi River, but this name rarely appears in literature otherwise.[22]

Wikipedia

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