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Corbeau et champignon: sources diverses

Cette page répertorie “en vrac” tout élément susceptible d’intervenir dans la question du lien entre “corbeau” et “champignon”.

Du point de vue de l’histoire de l’ethnomycologique, le point de départ de la mise en évidence du lien entre corbeau et champignon est la recollection par Wasson des contes sibériens liés à l’amanite (cf. Russia mushrooms and History et Soma), auquel s’est ajoutée l’étude de Georg Morgenstien . Les travaux de Mochtar et Geerkens comme ceux de Bedrossian renvoient à ces sources.


‘Mushroom’ and ‘toadstool’ in Indo-Iranian

Georg Morgenstierne
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London , Vol. 20, No. 1/3, Studies in Honour of Sir Ralph Turner, Director of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1937-57 (1957), pp. 451-457
This article consists of 7 page(s).

“.. peculiarly enough, the Egyptian-Arabic word for mushroom (‘aysh-al-ghorab) also translates to “raven’s bread”. [In the Afdari (Semnani) language of Iran, the name kalagh-nun (crow’s bread) is given to an unidentified species of mushroom. (Georg Morgenstierne, “‘Mushroom’ and ‘toadstool’ in Indo-Iranian”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 20:451-457 (1957), pg. 453.) – PGW]”



The Hallucinogens Muscarine and Ibotenic Acid in the Middle Hindu Kush
A contribution on traditional medicinal mycology in Afghanistan
by Said Gholam Mochtar & Hartmut Geerken
Translated with additional notes by Peter G. Werner, 1997

(article original)
Mochtar, S.G. & H. Geerken. (1979). Die Halluzinogene Muscarin und Ibotensäure im Mittleren Hindukusch: Ein Beitrag zur volkheilpraktischen Mykologie. Afghanistan Journal 6:62-65.

http://www.erowid.org/plants/amanitas/references/journal/1979_mochtar_afghanistan1.shtml



Huitlacoche: The Mexican Truffle
Don´t judge a mushroom by its looks!

© Sarah Menkedick

Huitlacoche (pronounced wheat-la-coach-ay) is a black mushroom that grows on corn. Its gothic appearance (like a terrible moldy fungus devouring the innocent yellow corn) earned it the name “filth of the raven” in prehispanic Mexico

http://mexican-food.suite101.com/article.cfm/huitlacoche_the_mexican_truffle

For more information on Huitlacoche, see this excellent study (in Spanish!) by Mexican scientist Octavio Paredes Lopez: http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2001/09/10/cien-paredes.html



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Des corbeaux et des hommes

par Daniel Arapu

http://www.lutecium.org/stp/cor.html

http://www.lutecium.org/stp/arapu.html



Daniel Arapu a attiré notre attention sur le rôle possible de l’allitération dans la “nomenclature” du corbeau.

Le dictionnaire de sanscrit Monnier wWlliams donne les termes suivants: le dernier est intéressant, il associe « champignon » et « oiseau »

  • kacaka m. a kind of mushroom Nigh
  • kavaka n. a fungus, mushroom Mn. Yājñ. Hcat ; a mouthful L
  • karaka (for 2. col. 3), as m. a watervessel (esp. one used by students or ascetics) MBh. R ;… a species of bird L …..
    (am), n. fungus, mushroom L—-

Liens extérieurs
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Bible
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  • The Hallucinogens Muscarine and Ibotenic Acid in the Middle Hindu Kush
  • A contribution on traditional medicinal mycology in Afghanistan
  • by Said Gholam Mochtar & Hartmut Geerken
  • Translated with additional notes by Peter G. Werner, 1997
  • Mochtar, S.G. & H. Geerken. (1979). Die Halluzinogene Muscarin und Ibotensäure im Mittleren Hindukusch: Ein Beitrag zur volkheilpraktischen Mykologie. Afghanistan Journal 6:62-65.
  • http://www.erowid.org/plants/amanitas/references/journal/1979_mochtar_afghanistan1.shtml
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  • Klappe E. , Rabenbrot. Ein ethnomykologischer Beitrag (1982), Curare Saarbrücken, 1982, vol. 5, no4, pp. 217-222
  • Remarque: il s’agirait de notes sur la consommation d’amanite tue-mouche comme hallucinogène dans la mythologie et l’art chrétiens, il est possible que cet article soit à la source de l’identification de l’amanite sur le retable d’Hissenheim.
  • —-

Novel Antimicrobials from Mushrooms
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  • http://content.herbalgram.org/new-mark/herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=2167
  • “For hundreds of years, the Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia and other Northwest Coast First Peoples have used shelf polypore fungi medicinally. The Haida gave F. officinalis a name that translates into “ghost bread” or “tree biscuit.”17 Shelf fungi were also used spiritually, and were found in shaman graves. Additionally, the Haida personified bracket fungus as “Fungus Man,” who, because of his ritual strength, was conscripted by Yaahl, or Raven, as a steersman for his canoe when he went to obtain female genitalia in the Haida narrative on the origin of women.17 The strong association of this fungus with women, in particular, and their similarity in form, suggests an underlying female archetype.”
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Yuri E.Berezkin
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  • Yuri E.Berezkin
  • AMERINDIAN MYTHOLOGY with parallels in the Old World
  • Classification and Areal Distribution of Motifs. The Analytical Catalogue
  • Bibliography
  • 37. Mushrooms.
  • http://www.ruthenia.ru/folklore/berezkin/eng/041_114.htm
  • Subarctic.
  • Ingalik [touching mushrooms makes the hands sore]: Osgood 1959: 138; Koyukon [Koyukon never eat mushrooms, name them “mouse food”m “earth ears”; shaggy mane: “raven’s spear”, puffball: “raven’s snuff”, raven’s sack’; the punk fungus was chunks of fat; Raven put them on all trees; then decided that people’s life would be too easy; sprinkled it with his urine, it became birch fungus]: Nelson 1983: 56.
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Remarque : les corvidés semblent ête particulièrement réceptifs au conditionnement skynnérien, il serait donc imaginable qu’une “plaisanterie usuelle ” – si je puis m’exprimer ainsi – du chaman sibérien ait été de faire manger des bouts d’Amanite au corbeau. Je n’ai pas connaissance de ce qu’une telle observation ait été relevée par l’ethnographie.smiley_1387.gif
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  • Voici deux exemples de l’intelligence des corbeaux
  • “Next came Joshua Klein, the “Crow Guy”. Like rats and cockroaches, crows have evolved to live near people–it’s extremely rare for crows to mate more than 5 miles from human settlement. They’re also smarter than they look. We watched a film of one laboratory crow who hungered for food at the bottom of a vial, so the bird wrapped the end of a stick around the vial, and then used the curved portion to hook the food. (This was a new behavior that the bird, and the scientists, had never seen before.) Crows will remember the faces of the scientists who captured them, even for a day, and then incessantly caw at them years later on campus. (Now Joshua wears a mask.) Adulterous female crows will emit a false distress call so that when her mate flies off, she can have a secret rendezvous. We saw crows trained to find coins outside in the dirt, and insert them into a peanut vending machine. But here’s the smartest behavior of all, which you can see for yourself in the video on the right: There is a Japanese city in which the crows have learned a way to crack nuts–they drop the nuts into a busy pedestrian crosswalk, the cars break the nuts open, and then the crows wait on the curb for the red light so they can safely walk into the street to collect the booty”
  • (La vidéo suivante est vraiment marrante)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ny661wLDSn8&eurl=http:whohastimeforthis.blogspot.com/2008/03/ted-friday-morning-music-shrooms-and.html//
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” Besides humans, two other animals, the deer and the raven, are known to relish this mushroom. The raven’s love of Amanita muscaria was noted in antiquity: in ancient Egypt the Amanita muscaria mushroom was called “Raven’s bread” (9). ”
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Yuri E.Berezkin

Yuri E.Berezkin AMERINDIAN MYTHOLOGY with parallels in the Old WorldClassification and Areal Distribution of Motifs. The Analytical Catalogue Bibliography80. Genitals Exist by Themselves. http://www.ruthenia.ru/folklore/berezkin/eng/031_78.htm Tlingit [Raven tries to make privates of females of bark and leaves; finally gathers them on an island]: Swanton 1909 in Boas 1916, no.124: 575; Haida [when going to find the privates of females on an island, Raven asks various birds to accompany him; none can do it; he places the drawing of a toadstool in the stern of the canoe; then he gets one for his wife and one for his sister]: Swanton Swanton 1905: 126; 1912 in Boas 1916, no.124: 575. —-

Soma among the Armenians



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